Update 7 to Geopolitical Entities and Codes, the successor to FIPS standard 10-4, was issued with the date 2012-02-01. It recognizes the new province of Lima, and changes the status of departments and the constitutional province to regions, in accord with the reform of 2002. ISO 3166-2 adopts the same new statuses as of 2014-11-03.
I've updated the populations to show data from the 2007 census, acquired from the INEI site.
Newsletter II-2, an update to the ISO 3166-2 standard, is dated 2010-06-30. It assigns an ISO code to the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, which was formerly covered by the code for Lima region.
|Language||Spanish (es), Quechua (qu)|
Ecuador and Peru have fought repeatedly over disputed territories in the Amazon basin. Ecuador's territorial claim extended as far as the Marañón River before 1942. In that year, the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro drew the border between Ecuador and Peru shown on most modern maps. However, Ecuador still claims some of the region adjudicated to Peru. Most of this area is now part of Loreto region.
Corruption of village name Biruquete, possibly meaning "granary"
Peru is divided into 25 regiones (sing. región) and one provincia (province).
|Madre de Dios||109,555||85,183||32,889||Puerto Maldonado|
|Pasco||280,449||25,320||9,776||Cerro de Pasco|
Note: Peru has recently adopted a Código de Ubicación Geográfica (Ubigeo for short: Geographic Location Code). Its purpose is to assign a code to each politico-administrative division of the country, on every level, including departments, provinces, and districts. The codes are found in Tabla de Codificación Geográfica del Perú, which is published by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI). Each department receives a two-digit code. In every case, this department code is the same as the last two characters of the department's FIPS code. Provinces get a four-digit code, in which the first two digits indicate the department to which the province belongs. Similarly, districts are given a six-digit code, with the first four digits representing the province. The update procedure has been followed since 1993, which implies that Ubigeo has been around at least that long.
See the Provinces of Peru page.
Since 2002, Peru has been divided into 25 regions and one province. The regions are subdivided into provincias (provinces), which are further subdivided into partidos or distritos (districts). Lima [Province] and Callao, however, are divided directly into districts. In 2002, there were 1,828 districts.
Peru undertook a different regionalization program in 1988. Departments were grouped into regions as follows. (Later, San Martín-La Libertad region was divided into San Martín region and La Libertad region.) These regions never quite caught on, and were finally abandoned.
|Andrés Avelino Cáceres||1989-04-14||Huánuco, Junín, Pasco|
|Inka||1989-01-19||Apurímac, Cusco, Madre de Dios|
|José Carlos Mariátegui||1989-04-14||Moquegua, Puno, Tacna|
|Lima y Callao||1821-08-04||Callao, Lima|
|Los Libertadores-Wari||1989-02-16||Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Ica|
|Nor Oriental del Marañón||1982-07-11||Amazonas, Cajamarca, Lambayeque|
|San Martín-La Libertad||1989-01-20||La Libertad, San Martín|
In addition, the first three digits of the NUTE codes define eleven NUTE regions, which are identified only as REG01, REG02, etc.
The UN LOCODE page for Peru lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.
The uti possidetis of 1810 (a legal term meaning "as you now possess it", and describing a division of territory resulting from conquests) defined the boundaries of the virreinatos (viceroyalties) of Spain in South America. The viceroyalty of Lima corresponded fairly closely to modern Peru. At that time it was divided into eight intendencias (intendancies) and four gobiernos (governments). The intendancies were further subdivided into 58 partidos. The governments were Guayaquil (now in Ecuador), Callao, Mainas, and Quijos. The intendancies are those shown in the table below, plus Puno (source ).
An 1822 atlas states that the divisions of Peru before independence were seven intendancies, subdivided into 51 districts. The accompanying map shows an additional unorganized area in the Amazon basin, east of the intendancies. The intendancies are listed in this table, with populations as of 1795 (including indigenes, Europeans, and everyone else).
PE.LI, its FIPS code was
PE15, and its capital was Lima.
|Madre de Dios||16,000||25,212||25,269||21,968||35,788||69,854||109,555|
Note (1): These figures are given in the Rand McNally World Atlas, Commonwealth Edition, dated 1928, followed by a population estimate of 5,550,000 for 1921. Obviously the total population of 4,569,970 represents a date significantly earlier than 1921. Interpolating the population figures, I arrived at an estimated date of 1907 for these data. The total for this column is 10 more than the actual sum of the department populations; this discrepancy is copied from the atlas. The atlas notes that the population of San Martín is included in Puno.
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