The United States Census Bureau released the results of the 2010 Census on 2010-12-21. The table shows the resident population of each
state as of 2010-04-01. Under Population history, I have added data from all censuses back to the first one in 1790.
|Short name||UNITED STATES|
|Time zone||(see table)|
The United States has been an independent country throughout the 20th century. There are established procedures whereby its
possessions become first territories, then states, or are granted independence. The territories and dependencies at present are all
treated as separate countries by the standards, so they are listed individually in this book.
Other names of country:
Almost everywhere, USA is recognized as meaning the United States.
- Danish: Forenede Stater, Amerikas Forenede Stater
- Dutch: Verenigde Staten, Verenigde Staten van Amerika (formal)
- English: United States of America (formal), USA (informal)
- Finnish: Yhdysvallat, Amerikan Yhdysvallat
- French: États-Unis, États-Unis mp d'Amérique f (formal)
- German: Vereinigte Staaten, USA f, Vereinigte Staaten mp von Amerika n (formal)
- Icelandic: Bandaríki Norður-Ameríku, Bandaríkin (informal)
- Italian: Stati Uniti, Stati mp Uniti d'America (formal)
- Norwegian: Amerikas forente stater (formal), Sambandsstatene (Bokmål), Sambandsstatane (Nynorsk), De forente stater
- Portuguese: Estados Unidos, Estados mp Unidos da América f (formal)
- Russian: САСШ (abbr-obsolete), США (abbr), Северо-Американские Соединённые Штаты (obsolete), Соединённые Штаты Америки
- Spanish: Estados Unidos, Estados mp Unidos de América f (formal), EE.UU. (abbreviation)
- Swedish: Förenta staterna
- Turkish: Amerika Birleşik Devletleri
Origin of name:
descriptive: formed by union of separate states in North America. America (originally referring only to South America) was named by
Martin Waldseemüller (pseud. Hylacomylus), a cartographer, after Florentine navigator Amerigo Vespucci.
The United States is divided into fifty states and one federal district.
|District of Columbia|
|N.Mex.||-7~||2,059,179||314,926||121,594||4||Santa Fe||New Mexican||870-884|
|-7~||2,763,885||219,888||84,899||4||Salt Lake City||Utahn||840-847|
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. If periods are replaced by
hyphens, these are the same as the
state codes from ISO standard 3166-2. See note below.
- FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4. The two-digit codes after the "US" are also designated as two-digit FIPS State
Numeric Codes in FIPS PUB 5-2.
- Conv: Conventional abbreviations, standard before 1963 and still frequently used. States with short names were
- Tz: Offset from GMT in hours for standard time. The tilde (~) identifies states where daylight saving time is
Many states have more than one time zone; in those cases, the majority time zone is shown.
- Population: 2010-04-01 census.
- D: Division, as defined by the census bureau. Numbers are an arbitrary code keyed to the table below.
- Adjective: Adjectival form of the state name.
- ZIP: Range of three-digit ZIP codes used in each state (although border areas may be served from a different state).
The last two letters of the HASC code are a widely used set of standardized state codes. These codes were developed by the Post Office
Department along with the ZIP code system in 1963, although it was some time before they came into common use. They are also designated
as two-letter FIPS State Alpha Codes in FIPS PUB 5-2.
The census classes the states of the United States into nine divisions, and at a still higher level, into four regions, which are
groups of divisions. There are many other ways of dividing the United States into regions. This one merely has the sanction of the
census bureau in its favor.
|1||East North Central||North Central|
|2||East South Central||South|
|8||West North Central||North Central|
|9||West South Central||South|
The Post Office Department introduced a system of postal codes for the U.S., effective as of 1963-07-01. They were designated ZIP
codes, for Zoning Improvement Program. The codes are hierarchical. The first digit represents a group of states, usually contiguous.
The first three digits represent part of a state. The full five digits represent a post office or urban delivery area. (Subsequently, an
optional four-digit extension called ZIP+4 was added to identify a small block of addresses.)
See the Counties of the United States page.
Underneath the states there are counties, parishes (in Louisiana), boroughs (in Alaska), and independent cities (mixed in with counties
in Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia). The District of Columbia is its own only division. Territory in Alaska which lies outside
the limits of any of the boroughs is referred to as the unorganized borough. For statistical purposes, the unorganized borough is divided
into census areas. Counties, parishes, boroughs, independent cities, census areas, and the District of Columbia are generically known as
"county equivalents". Counties in Connecticut and Rhode Island no longer serve any administrative purpose. Underneath the county
equivalents, 29 states have further subdivisions, which may be called towns, townships, cities, boroughs, villages, districts,
plantations, etc.; the generic term is minor civil divisions.
FIPS PUB 55-2 defines a three-digit code for every county equivalent in the United States. They are only unique within their state,
but if either the two-letter or two-digit FIPS State Code is prefixed to them, a five-digit number is obtained which uniquely identifies
the county equivalent. There is also a file of seven-digit codes for populated places, in which the first two digits of each codes
identify the state. This file includes codes for minor civil divisions.
- There is one point where four states meet: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah.
- Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah appear on a small- or medium-scale map to be bounded only by parallels of latitude and meridians of
longitude. In fact, most of their borders deviate by a mile or so, because of early surveying errors that were perpetuated by law.
- Alabama: includes Dauphin Island and the eastern tip of Petit Bois Island.
- Alaska: includes Forrester, Dall, Long, and Prince of Wales islands at the southeastern end; in the southwest, the Aleutian Islands,
extending to the Near Islands (Attu, Agattu, and some smaller ones); in the Bering Sea, Saint Lawrence, Nunivak, Saint Matthew, King,
Little Diomede, and the Pribilof Islands (Saint Paul and Saint George); in the Gulf of Alaska, Kodiak, Chirikof, and Middleton islands;
and many other coastal islands.
- California: includes the Channel Islands (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel, and Anacapa), Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and San
Nicolas islands off Los Angeles, and the Farallon Islands off San Francisco.
- Connecticut: despite appearances, its territory is not adjacent to the open sea. New York and Rhode Island have a water boundary
which encloses Connecticut.
- Delaware: part of its boundary with Pennsylvania is an arc of a circle. Its radius is twelve miles. Includes Pea Patch and Reedy
islands in the Delaware River estuary.
- Florida: includes the Florida Keys, stretching past Key West to the Marquesas Keys and Dry Tortugas.
- Georgia: includes coastal islands from Cumberland in the south to Tybee in the north.
- Hawaii: consists of the islands of Hawaii, Oahu, Maui, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, Kahoolawe, and a chain of islets extending
as far west as Kure Island, but excluding Midway and Sand islands.
- Kentucky: has an exclave surrounded by Tennessee and Missouri. It is formed by the southern border of Kentucky, approximately a
straight east-west line in that vicinity, which is crossed three times by the Mississippi River which forms Kentucky's western border.
There are no towns in the exclave, which lies across the Mississippi from New Madrid, Missouri.
- Louisiana: includes islands in the Mississippi delta as far north as Grand Island, Isle au Pitre, and the Chandeleur Islands.
- Maine: includes many coastal and offshore islands, as far south as the Isles of Shoals, of which Duck, Appledore, Smuttynose, and
Cedar belong to Maine.
- Maryland: includes the northern part of Assateague Island, and many islands in Chesapeake Bay, ranging south to Smith Island, which
it shares with Virginia.
- Massachusetts: includes Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, Nomans Land, the Elizabeth Islands, and other islands off Cape Cod, as well
as many small islands in Massachusetts Bay.
- Michigan: consists of two peninsulas and many islands in the Great Lakes. The islands closest to Canada are Isle Royale in Lake
Superior, Drummond, Sugar, and Neebish islands on the Saint Marys River, Harsens Island in Lake Saint Clair, and Grosse Isle and Belle
Isle in the Detroit River. Closest to Wisconsin is Saint Martin Island in the mouth of Green Bay.
- Minnesota: includes islands in Lake of the Woods, which belongs partly to Canada. The northernmost point in the 48 contiguous states
is near Angle Inlet. It's part of the mainland, but the only way to reach it from the rest of Minnesota by land is to go through Canada.
- Mississippi: includes islands in the Gulf of Mexico from Cat Island to most of Petit Bois Island.
- New Hampshire: includes White, Lunging, and Star islands in the Isles of Shoals group, and New Castle Island in Portsmouth Harbor.
- New Jersey: includes many barrier islands on the Atlantic coast, but none in the New York City area.
- New York: has two exclaves in New Jersey. The border between the two states followed the middle of the Hudson River. Liberty and
Ellis Islands, lying west of that line, constituted small patches of New York land surrounded by New Jersey water. Recently a court
awarded partial control of Ellis Island to New Jersey, so the situation may be changing. Four of New York City's five boroughs are on
islands: Staten Island, Manhattan, and Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island. New York also includes Fishers Island at the end of the Long
Island Sound; Grand Island in the Niagara River; some of the Thousand Islands (Wellesley, Grindstone, Carleton, Croil, etc.) in the Saint
Lawrence River; and Valcour and Schuyler islands in Lake Champlain.
- North Carolina: includes the barrier islands of the Outer Banks.
- Ohio: includes Kelleys Island and the Bass Islands (North, Middle, and South) in Lake Erie.
- Rhode Island: includes Block Island and numerous islands in Narragansett Bay.
- Texas: includes some barrier islands, such as Padre, Matagorda, and Galveston.
- Vermont: includes Grand Isle, Isle La Motte, and other islands in Lake Champlain.
- Virginia: includes barrier islands and Chesapeake Bay islands south of Maryland's territory.
- Washington: includes islands in Puget Sound and Haro Strait. The islands lying closest to Canada are San Juan, Stuart, and Waldron.
Point Roberts, Washington, is the tip of a peninsula from Canada, cut off from the rest of Washington by water.
- Wisconsin: includes the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior, and up to Chambers, Washington, and Rock islands in the mouth of Green Bay.
- American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, and Virgin Islands of the U.S. are United
States possessions covered under their individual entries.
The UN LOCODE page for United States of America lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.
Origins of names:
- Alabama: from Alabama River, from an ethnic name
- Alaska: from an Aleutian word for mainland
- Arizona: Papago ali shonak: place of a small spring
- Arkansas: from Arkansas River, from an ethnic name
- California: Named by Hernan Cortez in 1535 after a fictional island in the poem "Las Sergas de Esplandián", by Garcí Ordóñez de Montalvo
- Colorado: from Colorado River, Spanish colorado: red
- Connecticut: Algonquian kuenihtekot: long river
- Delaware: after Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, first governor of Virginia
- District of Columbia: named for Christopher Columbus
- Florida: Spanish Pascua Florida: Palm Sunday, because discovered on 1513-03-20, Palm Sunday
- Georgia: Named for King George II of England
- Hawaii: Polynesian Owhyhii: place of the gods
- Idaho: from a native word which means either "eaters of fish" or "stone of the mountains"
- Illinois: from Illinois River, from Algonquin illini: warriors
- Indiana: land of Indians
- Iowa: from Iowa River, from native word ay-ah-wah: the sleeper
- Kansas: from Kansas River, from an ethnic name, Sioux for south wind people
- Kentucky: probably from Iroquois kentake: meadow land
- Louisiana: named for King Louis XIV of France on 1681-08-22
- Maine: the mainland, to distinguish it from the islands along the coast
- Maryland: named for Queen Henrietta Maria of England, consort of Charles I
- Massachusetts: from Massachusetts Bay, from an ethnic name, from Algonquian for big hills
- Michigan: from Lake Michigan; Algonquian for big lake
- Minnesota: from Minnesota River, from a Dakotan word for cloudy water
- Mississippi: from Mississippi River, from Algonquian for big river
- Missouri: from Missouri River, from an ethnic name
- Montana: from Spanish montaña: mountain
- Nebraska: from an old name for the Platte River, from Dakotan for flat water
- Nevada: from the Sierra Nevada, from Spanish nevada: snowy
- New Hampshire: named in 1629 after Hampshire county in England
- New Jersey: named in 1664 after Jersey, a Channel Island
- New Mexico: from Spanish Nuevo Mexico, applied to new lands north of the Mexican provinces
- New York: after the city and county of York in England, but explicitly in honor of the Duke of York
- North Carolina: Northern part of Carolina, named for King Charles I (Latin: Carolus) of England
- North Dakota: Northern part of Dakota, from an ethnic name
- Ohio: from Ohio River, from Iroquoian for beautiful river
- Oklahoma: Choctaw for red people (originally applied to a smaller region)
- Oregon: possibly from a mistaken identification of the Columbia River with a conjectural Ouaricon River on old maps
- Pennsylvania: Penn (William Penn, grantee of land) + Latin silva: forest + -nia (suffix for country)
- Rhode Island: from the island now known as Aquidneck, likened by Giovanni da Verrazano to Rhodes in the Mediterranean
- South Carolina: Southern part of Carolina (see North Carolina)
- South Dakota: Southern part of Dakota, from an ethnic name
- Tennessee: from Tennessee River, which was named for a Cherokee town near its headwaters
- Texas: from a group of natives known as teyas or tejas, meaning friends
- Utah: from Utah River, from an ethnic name (Utes)
- Vermont: a coined name, intended to represent French monts verts: green mountains
- Virginia: named by Queen Elizabeth I of England using an epithet which alluded to her unmarried state
- Washington: named in honor of George Washington
- West Virginia: descriptive; separated from Virginia in 1862 to adhere to the Union
- Wisconsin: from Wisconsin River, possibly from Alonquian for big long river
- Wyoming: after the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, which was named from Algonquian for big flats
- 1776-07-04: Declaration of Independence approved by the Continental Congress. The "United States of America" at that time referred to
a loose confederation of thirteen states, plus unorganized territory to the west of the Applachian Mountains claimed by those states, often
in competition. The states and their capitals were Connecticut (Hartford and New Haven, joint capitals), Delaware (New Castle), Georgia
(Savannah), Maryland (Annapolis), Massachusetts (Boston), New Hampshire (Exeter), New Jersey (Burlington and Perth Amboy, joint capitals),
New York (Kingston), North Carolina (New Bern), Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), Rhode Island (Bristol, East Greenwich, Newport, Providence,
and South Kingstown, joint capitals), South Carolina (Charles Town), and Virginia (Williamsburg).
- 1777: Capital of Delaware moved to Dover.
- 1780: Capital of Virginia moved to Richmond.
- 1783: Name of capital of South Carolina changed from Charles Town to Charleston.
- 1783-09-03: Treaty of Paris recognized independence of the United States.
- 1784: Capital of New York moved to New York City.
- 1785-02-22: Augusta and Savannah had been co-capitals of Georgia since 1778. On this date, Augusta became the sole capital.
- 1787-07-13: Northwest territory formed under authority of the Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787, comprising the present-day states
of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. In 1788, Marietta (now in Ohio) became its first capital. The
Northwest Ordinances set the pattern for extending the United States. Acquisitions would first be simply possessions of the United States;
then territorial governments would be formed; finally, the lands would be admitted as states. Generally speaking, these lands had no
capital before they were organized as territories, but were administered directly from the national capital. Only with statehood did they
obtain all the privileges of participation in the Federal government.
- 1788-06-21: The Constitution took effect, having been ratified by nine states. New York City was the first national capital.
- 1790: Capital of New Jersey moved to Trenton. Capital of South Carolina moved to Columbia. Southwest territory (officially called "The
Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio") created.
- 1790-06-16: National capital moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Congress first met there on this date.
- 1791-03-04: Vermont state split from New York (also claimed by New Hampshire). Rutland and Windsor were joint capitals.
- 1792: Capital of Southwest territory established at Knoxville.
- 1792-06-01: Kentucky state split from Virginia. Its capital was Lexington.
- 1792-12-05: Frankfort selected as permanent capital of Kentucky.
- 1794-12-30: Capital of North Carolina moved to Raleigh.
- 1796-03: Capital of Georgia moved to Louisville.
- 1796-06-01: Southwest territory became Tennessee state, with some minor boundary changes.
- 1797: Capital of New York moved to Albany.
- 1798-05-07: Mississippi territory formed. Its first capital was Natchez.
- 1799: Capital of Pennsylvania moved to Lancaster.
- 1800-07-04: Indiana territory formed from part of Northwest territory. Its first capital was Vincennes.
- 1800-12-01: National capital moved to Washington. District of Columbia formed from parts of Maryland and Virginia.
- 1801-12-12: Capital of Mississippi moved to Washington, Mississippi.
- 1803-03-01: Ohio state formed from part of Northwest territory. Its first capital was Chillicothe.
- 1803-04-30: Louisiana transferred from France to the United States, by purchase.
- 1804: Georgia's western lands annexed to Mississippi territory.
- 1804-10-01: Louisiana purchase split into Orleans territory (approximately the present-day state of Louisiana) and Louisiana district.
New Orleans was the capital of Orleans territory.
- 1804-12-12: Capital of Georgia moved to Milledgeville, although the legislature didn't meet there until 1807.
- 1805: Capital of Vermont moved to Montpelier.
- 1805-01-11: Michigan territory formed from part of Indiana territory. Its first capital was Detroit.
- 1805-07-04: Status of Louisiana changed from district to territory.
- 1808: Capital of New Hampshire moved to Concord. Several different towns had been capital between 1781 and 1808.
- 1809-03-01: Illinois territory formed from what was left of Northwest territory. Its first capital was Kaskaskia.
- 1810: Capital of Ohio moved to Zanesville.
- 1810-10-27: West Florida (parts of modern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama) claimed by the United States. The territory was occupied
between then and 1813-04.
- 1812: Capital of Ohio moved to Chillicothe; capital of Pennsylvania moved to Harrisburg; capital of Tennessee moved to Nashville.
- 1812-04-30: Orleans territory, along with some adjacent lands, became Louisiana state.
- 1812-12-07: Louisiana territory split into Missouri territory and unorganized land. The first capital of Missouri was Saint Louis.
- 1813-05-01: Capital of Indiana moved to Corydon.
- 1815: Capital of Tennessee moved to Knoxville.
- 1816: Capital of Ohio moved to Columbus.
- 1816-12-11: Indiana state formed from part of Indiana territory.
- 1817: Capital of Tennessee moved to Murfreesboro.
- 1817-08-15: Alabama territory split from Mississippi territory. Its first capital was Saint Stephens.
- 1817-12-10: Status of Mississippi changed from territory to state.
- 1818: Treaty of 1818 fixed the boundary between the United States and Canada at 49° North latitude, westward from Lake of the Woods.
- 1818-12-03: Illinois state formed from part of Illinois territory; the remainder merged with Michigan territory.
- 1819-02-22: Adams-Onís Treaty set the boundary between Spanish possessions and United States. East and West Florida transferred from
Spain to the United States. (East Florida corresponds to present-day Florida.)
- 1819-03-02: Unorganized territory between Louisiana and Missouri became Arkansaw territory. Its first capital was Arkansas Post. The
spelling of its name varied, but by 1822, Arkansas had become the preferred form.
- 1819-12-14: Status of Alabama changed from territory to state, with capital at Huntsville.
- 1820: Capital of Alabama moved to Cahawba.
- 1820-03-16: Maine state split from Massachusetts state, in which it had been a district. Its first capital was Portland.
- 1820-11-25: Capital of Missouri moved to Saint Charles.
- 1820-12-04: Capital of Illinois moved to Vandalia.
- 1821: Capital of Arkansas moved to Little Rock.
- 1821-08-10: Missouri state formed from part of Missouri territory. The remainder became unorganized territory.
- 1822: Capital of Mississippi moved to Jackson, formerly LeFleur's Bluff.
- 1822-03-30: Florida organized as territory.
- 1824: Tallahassee became capital of Florida territory.
- 1825-01-10: Capital of Indiana moved to Indianapolis.
- 1825-11-21: Capital of Missouri moved to Jefferson City.
- 1826: Capital of Alabama moved to Tuscaloosa.
- 1830: Capital of Louisiana moved to Donaldsonville.
- 1831: Capital of Louisiana moved back to New Orleans.
- 1832-01-04: Capital of Maine moved to Augusta.
- 1834: Unorganized territory north of Missouri merged with Michigan territory.
- 1834-06-30: Indian territory (present-day Oklahoma) formed from unorganized territory.
- 1836-06-15: Arkansas state formed from part of Arkansas territory. The remainder was left unorganized.
- 1836-07-04: Wisconsin territory formed from part of Michigan territory. Its first capital was Madison.
- 1837-01-26: Status of Michigan changed from territory to state.
- 1838-07-04: Iowa territory split from Wisconsin territory. Its first capital was Burlington.
- 1839: Capital of Iowa moved to Iowa City.
- 1839-07-04: Capital of Illinois moved to Springfield. (Location selected 1837-02-28.)
- 1842-11-10: Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the boundary between U.S. and Canada (Maine/New Brunswick, Minnesota/Hudson's Bay Company).
- 1843: Capital of Tennessee moved to Nashville.
- 1845-03-03: Status of Florida changed from territory to state.
- 1845-12-29: Republic of Texas annexed to the United States as Texas state. Its first capital as a state was Austin, although the republic
had had capitals at Houston and Washington on the Brazos.
- 1846-07-09: Part of District of Columbia, on the south shore of the Potomac, returned to Virginia.
- 1846-12-28: Iowa territory split into Iowa state and unorganized territory.
- 1847-03-16: Capital of Michigan moved to Michigan, Michigan.
- 1847-12-06: Capital of Alabama moved to Montgomery.
- 1848: Name of capital of Michigan changed to Lansing.
- 1848-02-02: By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded land approximately equivalent to its territories of Alta California and
Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) to the United States.
- 1848-05-29: Status of Wisconsin changed from territory to state.
- 1848-08-14: Oregon territory formed from unorganized lands west of the Louisiana purchase. Its first capital was Oregon City.
- 1849: Capital of Louisiana moved to Baton Rouge.
- 1849-03-03: Minnesota territory formed from the unorganized territory left over when Iowa became a state. Its first capital was Saint Paul.
- 1850-09-09: Compromise of 1850 took effect. California became a state. Its first capital was San Jose. The remainder of the Mexican
Cession was divided into New Mexico and Utah territories. Their capitals were Santa Fe and Salt Lake City, respectively. Texas was paid
$10,000,000 to relinquish its claim to land to the north and west of its present-day boundaries (accepted 1850-11-25). The relinquished claim
was divided up, part going to the New Mexico and Utah territories, and the rest to the unorganized territory.
- 1851-10-04: Capital of Utah moved to Fillmore.
- 1852-05-04: Capital of Oregon moved to Salem.
- 1852-01: Capital of California moved to Vallejo. (The legislature also met in Sacramento from January to April.)
- 1853-02-04: Capital of California moved to Benicia.
- 1853-03-02: Washington territory split from Oregon territory. Its first capital was Olympia.
- 1853-12-30: Gadsden Purchase (known as La Mesilla to Mexicans) transferred from Mexico to the United States, becoming part of New Mexico
- 1854-01: Newport and Providence became the only joint capitals of Rhode Island.
- 1854-02-25: Capital of California moved to Sacramento.
- 1854-05-30: Kansas and Nebraska territories formed from unorganized territory, leaving present-day Oklahoma as unorganized territory. The
first capital of Kansas was Fort Leavenworth; of Nebraska, Omaha.
- 1855-01-13: Capital of Oregon moved to Corvallis, then back to Salem on 1855-12-18.
- 1855-08: Capital of Kansas moved to Lecompton. The sequence of Kansas territorial capitals is intricate, especially because of rival
factions (pro- and anti-slavery) with competing capitals. Pawnee, Shawnee Mission, Minneola, and Lawrence were all capitals at some
- 1856: Capital of Utah moved to Salt Lake City.
- 1857-10-19: Capital of Iowa moved to Des Moines, formerly Fort Des Moines.
- 1858: Capital of Utah moved to Parowan.
- 1858-05-11: Minnesota state formed from part of Minnesota territory. The remainder became unorganized territory.
- 1859: Capital of Utah moved to Salt Lake City; capital of Kansas moved to Topeka.
- 1859-02-14: Status of Oregon changed from territory to state.
- 1860-12-24: South Carolina seceded from United States, followed on later dates by Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Florida,
Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. They formed a federation called the Confederated States of America.
- 1861-01-29: Status of Kansas changed from territory to state.
- 1861-02-28: Colorado territory formed from parts of the former Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Utah territories. Its first capital was Colorado City.
- 1861-03-02: Dakota territory (capital Yankton, in present-day South Dakota) formed from part of Nebraska territory and unorganized
territory left over from Minnesota; Nevada territory (capital Carson City) formed from parts of New Mexico and Utah territories.
- 1862: Capital of Colorado moved to Golden.
- 1862-07-14: Border between Nevada and Utah territories moved from 116°03' W. to 115°03' W. (approximately - longitudes were measured using a
baseline in Washington, D.C. at the time).
- 1863-02-24: Arizona territory split from New Mexico territory. Its first capital was Fort Whipple.
- 1863-03-03: Idaho territory formed from parts of Washington and Dakota territories. Its first capital was Lewiston.
- 1863-06-19: West Virginia split from Virginia by retro-secession, and joined the United States as a state. Its first capital was Wheeling.
- 1864: Capital of Arizona moved to Prescott. Capital of Idaho moved to Boise.
- 1864-05-26: Montana territory formed from part of Nebraska and Idaho territories. Its first capital was Bannack.
- 1864-10-31: Status of Nevada changed from territory to state.
- 1865-02-07: Capital of Montana moved to Virginia City.
- 1865-04-09: Lee surrendered at Appomatox. The states which had seceded were re-admitted to the United States one by one, starting with
Tennessee (1866-07-24) and ending with Georgia (1870-07-15).
- 1866-05-05: Border between Nevada and Utah territories moved from 115°03' W. to 114°03' W.
- 1867: Capital of Colorado moved to Denver.
- 1867-01-18: Part of Arizona territory (modern Nevada south of 37° N.) annexed to Nevada.
- 1867-03-01: Status of Nebraska changed from territory to state.
- 1867-08-14: Capital of Nebraska moved to Lancaster, and its name changed to Lincoln.
- 1867-09-04: Capital of Arizona moved to Tucson.
- 1867-10-11: Alaska transferred from Russia to the United States by purchase. Capital was Sitka.
- 1868-07-04: Capital of Georgia moved to Atlanta.
- 1868-07-29: Wyoming territory formed from parts of former Nebraska, Utah, and Idaho territories. Its first capital was Cheyenne.
- 1870: Capital of West Virginia moved to Charleston.
- 1875: Hartford became the sole capital of Connecticut. Capital of West Virginia moved to Wheeling.
- 1875-01: Capital of Montana moved to Helena.
- 1876-08-01: Status of Colorado changed from territory to state.
- 1877: Capital of Arizona moved to Prescott.
- 1882: Capital of Louisiana moved to Baton Rouge, apparently from New Orleans, which was used as capital by Union forces during the Civil War.
- 1883: Capital of Dakota moved to Bismarck.
- 1884-05-17: Status of Alaska changed to district.
- 1885: Capital of West Virginia moved to Charleston.
- 1889: Capital of Arizona moved to Phoenix.
- 1889-11-02: Dakota territory split into North Dakota and South Dakota states (capitals Bismarck and Pierre, respectively).
- 1889-11-08: Status of Montana changed from territory to state.
- 1889-11-11: Status of Washington changed from territory to state.
- 1890-05-02: Oklahoma territory split from Indian territory.
- 1890-07-03: Status of Idaho changed from territory to state.
- 1890-07-10: Status of Wyoming changed from territory to state.
- 1896-01-04: Status of Utah changed from territory to state.
- 1898-08-12: Republic of Hawaii annexed to the United States.
- 1900: Capital of Alaska moved to Juneau.
- 1900-01: Providence became the sole capital of Rhode Island.
- 1900-06-14: Hawaii organized as territory. Its capital was Honolulu.
- 1907-11-16: Oklahoma territory merged with Indian Territory to form Oklahoma state. Its first capital was Guthrie.
- 1910-06-11: Capital of Oklahoma moved to Oklahoma City.
- 1912-01-06: Status of New Mexico changed from territory to state.
- 1912-02-14: Status of Arizona changed from territory to state.
- 1912-08-24: Status of Alaska changed to territory.
- 1959-01-03: Status of Alaska changed from territory to state.
- 1959-08-21: Status of Hawaii changed from territory to state.
Other names of subdivisions:
Formal name is "State of [state name]" unless otherwise noted. In texts in other languages using the Roman alphabet, state names can
almost always be left untranslated.
- Alaska: Alasca (Portuguese); Аляска (Russian)
- Arkansas: Арканзас (Russian)
- California: Califórnia (Portuguese); Californie (French); Kalifornien (German); Kaliforniya (Turkish);
- Delaware: Делавэр (Russian)
- District of Columbia: Distrito de Columbia (Portuguese, Spanish)
- Florida: Floride (French)
- Georgia: Géorgie (French); Джорджия (Russian)
- Hawaii: Havaí (Portuguese); Hawaï (Dutch); Hawaiʻi (variant; see note below); Гавайи (Russian)
- Illinois: Иллинойс (Russian)
- Kentucky: Commonwealth of Kentucky (formal); Кентукки (Russian)
- Louisiana: Luisiana (Spanish); Louisiane (French); Луизиана (Russian)
- Massachusetts: Commonwealth of Massachusetts (formal); Массачусетс (Russian)
- Mississippi: Misisipi (Spanish-variant)
- Missouri: Misuri (Spanish-variant)
- New Hampshire: Nova Hampshire (Portuguese); Nueva Hampshire (Spanish)
- New Jersey: Nova Jersey (Portuguese); Nueva Jersey (Spanish)
- New Mexico: Neu-Mexiko (German); Nouveau-Mexique (French); Novo México (Portuguese); Nuevo Mexico (Spanish)
- New York: Nevyork (Turkish); Nova York, Nova Iorque (Portuguese); Nueva York (Spanish); Нью Йорк (Russian)
- North Carolina: Carolina del Norte (Spanish); Carolina do Norte (Portuguese); Caroline du Nord (French); Kuzey Carolina (Turkish); Nord-Karolina (German)
- North Dakota: Dakota del Norte (Spanish); Dakota do Norte (Portuguese); Dakota du Nord (French); Kuzey Dakota (Turkish); Nord-Dakota (German)
- Oklahoma: Оклахома (Russian)
- Oregon: Oregón (Spanish)
- Pennsylvania: Pennsylvanie (French); Pennsylvanien (German); Pensilvania (Spanish); Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (formal);
- Rhode Island: State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (formal);
- South Carolina: Carolina del Sur (Spanish); Caroline du Sud (French); Carolina do Sul (Portuguese); Güney Carolina (Turkish); Süd-Karolina (German)
- South Dakota: Dakota del Sur (Spanish); Dakota do Sul (Portuguese); Dakota du Sud (French); Güney Dakota (Turkish); Süd-Dakota (German)
- Texas: Техас (Russian)
- Utah: Юта (Russian)
- Virginia: Virginie (French); Virgínia (Portuguese); Commonwealth of Virginia (formal)
- Washington: Вашингтон (Russian)
- West Virginia: Batı Virginia (Turkish); Virginia del Oeste, Virginia Occidental (Spanish); Virgínia Ocidental (Portuguese); Virginie
occidentale (French); West-Virginia (German)
Note: Some Hawaiians advocate the spelling Hawaiʻi, which is the Hawaiian-language form of the name. The extra character is called
an ʻokina, and represents a glottal stop. The recommended Unicode character is U+02BB, "modifier letter turned comma". This form has
been appearing with increasing frequency in Hawaii itself. In the mainland, it seems to be used for its impressive effect. In tourist
brochures, it makes Hawaii seem more exotic. In articles, it makes the author appear more of an insider. (People used to try to impress
their friends by pronouncing the name "Havaii", which is not correct.) I hope that the ʻokina never becomes official, because it
is hard to type on a computer with language preferences set to English - just as I thought it was stupid for Azerbaijan to include the schwa
when the Azerbaijani language returned to the Roman alphabet in 1991.
Census dates were 1900-04-15, 1910-04-15, 1920-01-01, and 04-01 (April 1) in subsequent years. Individual states don't add up to the
exact total in some years, for various reasons. For example, in the 1830 and 1840 censuses, a few thousand people on U.S. ships were
counted in the total, but not in any state.