Communes of Montenegro

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"Geopolitical Entities, Names, and Codes, Edition 2" (GENC), a U.S. standard that's supposed to correspond to ISO 3166-2, was issued on 2014-03-31. It gives Gusinje and Petnica the codes ME-22 and ME-23, respectively. Subsequently, on 2014-11-03, ISO issued codes for Gusinje and Petnica. Now there is a perfect match between the two standards.

Update 16 to the U.S. standard GEC is dated 2014-06-30. It adds codes for the two new communes.

Sorin Cosoveanu wrote that the new Petnjica commune, split from Berane, would begin operation on 2014-01-01. Later, he wrote that Gusinje commune was split from Plav, providing thorough documentation. The law creating Gusinje commune was passed on 2014-02-26 and published on 2014-03-03. The first municipal election for Gusinje was held on 2014-05-25. I have added both communes to the table.

When FIPS 10-4 was replaced by GEC in 2010-04, it assigned GEC codes to the communes of Montenegro.

ISO 3166-1 Newsletter V-12, dated 2006-09-26, announces the splitting of Serbia and Montenegro into two countries. ISO 3166-2 Newsletter I-8, published on 2007-04-17, has ISO codes for the municipalities of Montenegro. They are shown in the table below.

FIPS 10-4 Change Notice 11, dated 2006-07-11, assigned new FIPS codes to Serbia and Montenegro as separate countries.

Country overview: 

ISO codeME
GEC codeMJ
LanguageSerbian (sr)
Time zone+1~


Montenegro was an independent kingdom at the start of the 20th century. It was annexed to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes when the latter was formed on 1918-12-01. The unified country's name became Yugoslavia in 1929. After the fall of Communism, Yugoslavia gradually split up into its former constituent republics. Montenegro was the last to split from Serbia in 2006.

Other names of country: 

  1. Danish: Montenegro
  2. Dutch: Montenegro
  3. Finnish: Montenegro
  4. French: Monténégro m
  5. German: Montenegro n
  6. Icelandic: Svartfjallaland
  7. Italian: Montenegro m
  8. Norwegian: Montenegro
  9. Portuguese: Montenegro m
  10. Serbian: Crna Gora
  11. Russian: Черногория
  12. Spanish: Montenegro m
  13. Swedish: Montenegro
  14. Turkish: Karadağ

Origin of name: 

Italian calque of Serbian crna: black, gora: mountain

Primary subdivisions: 

Montenegro is divided into 23 opštini (communes, or municipalities).

Bijelo PoljeME.BP04MJ04BP46,051924357
Herceg NoviME.HN08MJ08HN30,86423591
23 communes620,02913,7595,312
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. Inherited
    from Serbia and Montenegro with CS.CG replaced by ME.
  • ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
  • GEC: Codes from GEC.
  • Lic: License plate prefix.
  • Population: 2011-04-01 census.
  • Capitals: Have same names as communes.


Postal codes: 

Montenegro inherited a system of five-digit postal codes from Yugoslavia. In Montenegro, the codes all begin with '8'.

Further subdivisions:

The communes are divided into "local units." Podgorica commune is divided into three "urban municipalities": Podgorica, Golubovci, and Tuzi (since 2006).

Territorial extent: 

Montenegro has no islands of any significance. Its largest two, Ada Bojana in the Adriatic Sea and Vranjina in Lake Skadar, are each under 5 km.˛. It has a short land border with Croatia.

The UN LOCODE page  for Montenegro lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.

Origins of names: 

  1. Bijelo Polje: = white field
  2. Herceg Novi: = new duke, renamed from Castelnuovo (Italian: New Castle) by Duke Stjepan Vukčić Kosača (1404-1466); see also Bosnia and Herzegovina
  3. Podgorica: = under the hillock

Change history: 

  1. 1918-12-01: Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was proclaimed. For its history, and subsequently that of Yugoslavia, see Serbia.
  2. 1946-07-13: Capital of Montenegro moved from Cetinje to Podgorica, which was simultaneously renamed Titograd.
  3. 1949-07: Name of Berane town and commune changed to Ivangrad.
  4. 1960: Andrijevica commune merged with Ivangrad; they split again later that year.
  5. 1992-03: Name of Ivangrad restored to Berane.
  6. 1992-04-02: Name of capital of Montenegro restored to Podgorica.
  7. 1993: Presidential residence moved to Cetinje, making it in effect a secondary capital.
  8. 2006-06-03: Montenegro became independent from Serbia and Montenegro. Tracking the ISO country codes, the first two characters in the communes' HASC codes changed from YU to CS in 2003, and again to ME in 2006.
  9. 2013-05-28: Petnjica commune split from Berane (former HASC code ME.BE, 2011 population 33,970, area 717 km.˛).
  10. 2014-02-26: Gusinje commune split from Plav (former HASC code ME.PV, 2011 population 13,108, area 486 km.˛).

Population history:

Commune1961-03-031991-03-312003-11-012003 fixed2011-04-01
Bijelo Polje46,65155,26857,12450,28446,051
Herceg Novi15,15727,59333,97133,03430,864


Note: The figures first published for the 2003 census were later revised downward. According to source [7], the Montenegro Statistical Office recalculated the census figures in 2004, eliminating citizens living abroad. The recalculated figures are shown in the "2003 fixed" column. Those data were taken from Wikipedia. Sources for other columns: 1961 - [2]; 2003 - [7]; 1991 and 2011 - [8].


  1. [1] Mardešić, Petar, and Zvonimir Dugački. Geografski Atlas Jugoslavije. Zagreb: Znanje, 1961.
  2. [2] Mardešić, Petar, and Oto Oppitz. Atlas Svijeta. Jugoslavenski Leksikografski Zavod. Zagreb, 1969.
  3. [3] Territory and Administration in Europe. Robert Bennett, ed. Pinter Publishers, London and New York, 1989.
  4. [4] Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1992. Europa Publications Ltd., London, 1992.
  5. [5] Statistical Pocket Book 1993. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 1993.
  6. [6] Montenegro in Yugoslavia, 1918-1992  (retrieved 2009-12-21)
  7. [7] Serb Land of Montenegro  (retrieved 2009-12-21)
  8. [8] Census 2011 data—Municipalities , Statistical Office of Montenegro (retrieved 2012-06-25)
  9. [9] Vehicle registration plates of Montenegro , Wikipedia (retrieved 2013-11-02)
  10. [10] "Crna Gora: Petnjica dobila status opštine " (Montenegro: Petnjica given commune status). Article in Serbian news portal "Blic online" (dated 2013-05-28, retrieved 2014-01-09).
  11. [11] Official Gazette of Montenegro  (in Serbian; retrieved 2014-06-14).
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